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The characteristics of the hazel
- Type: fruit tree
- Height: 1 to 2 m, 2 to 5 m, 5 to 10 m
- Flower colors: yellow, gold
- Fruit name: hazelnut
- Desired exposure: sunny, semi-shaded
- Type of soil: humus, clay, stony, fresh
- Foliage: spent
- Vegetation: perennial
- Interview: easy to maintain
- sanitizer: no
- diseases: powdery mildew, aphids, weevils, anthracnose
Origins and peculiarities of the hazel tree
Formerly calledhazel, thecommon hazel (corylus avellana) is one of the oldest shrubs and trees, since it dates from the secondary era. It has long been given magical virtues, and its wood is still used today to design dowsing rods. Coming from the Betulaceae family, the hazel grows in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, in the hollow of the plains and up to 1500 meters above sea level.
The hazel tree is a tree which can reach 10 meters in height (even if on average it turns rather around 5-6 meters), and which is visually characterized by:
- A pretty bushy harbor;
- Male flowers of a beautiful golden yellow, which appear on the tree at the beginning of the year, generally between the months of January and March;
- Hazelnuts, which cannot be harvested before the hazelnut tree has entered its 6th year. But the tree can produce up to 60 years, so your patience will be greatly rewarded!
There are two types of hazelnut : ornamental trees and fruit trees (therefore hazelnut trees). The different varieties can be planted with each other. Ornamental hazelnut is used as a hedge, a natural fence or a garden background. The hazelnuts of fruit hazelnuts can be eaten fresh, but they are eaten more generally when dried.
Uses of hazel
Of course, the number one asset of the hazelnut is its fruit, the delicious hazelnut ; an oilseed which, in addition to being very good, is also rich:
- Vitamin E;
- In omega 3;
- In magnesium;
- In copper.
What makes it an ideal fruit to fight against fatigue and bad cholesterol and boost the immune system.
The hazel tree is also a tree whose wood, both robust but easy to work, can be used to make objects (including canes, dowsing sticks, etc.), tool handles, barrels ...
The hazelnut tree is a rustic tree that can also flourish by the sea, in the mountains or in the city! In terms of location, it is not very demanding either, since it can grow as much in the sun as in a semi-shaded area. However, if you want to harvest as many hazelnuts as possible, be sure to plant your hazelnut tree in a place that is not too cold and with sufficient light.
The hazel does not need a particularly rich soil to fruit, but it still has a preference for well-drained and rather cool soils. As such, note that the cooler the soil that receives it, the larger the hazelnuts will be!
An anemophilous and monoecious plant, the hazel produces discrete female flowers which appear towards the end of winter on the wood. The male flowers are easily recognizable by their golden yellow catkins. They are full of pollen which disperses with the wind. Squirrels also actively participate in the reproduction of hazelnut trees by burying the fruit of their hazelnut harvest.
The hazelnut tree is not a tree that requires too complicated maintenance, and it simply asks:
- Compost supply around October each year.
- Watering every 2 weeks in the summer period the first two years after planting.
Hazelnut enemies and parasites
In a garden, the two main enemies of the hazelnut tree are:
- The phytopte, a very small mite which attacks the buds of the tree by pricking them. To prevent this kind of attack, you can powder the tree with sulfur around March.
- The balanin, a small weevil that lays its eggs in hazelnuts in early summer, and causes them to fall before they reach maturity.