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The characteristics of the almond tree
- Type: fruit tree
- Height: up to 20m
- Flower color: pink white
- Fruit name: almond
- Desired exposure:sunny, semi-shaded
- Type of soil: dry, rocky
- Foliage: obsolete
- Sanitizing: no
- Diseases: Bupreste, anthracnose, gommose
Characteristics and origins of the almond tree
The almond tree, or Prunus Dulcis, is a shelled fruit tree belonging to the Rosaceae family. The almond tree reaches a size ranging from 6 to 12 m high, and has a very beautiful bark used in cabinetmaking.
The almond blossom, which appears before the leaves at the end of winter, in February-March, is pinkish white in color. The flowers are always grouped in pairs and formed by five petals.
The main defect of the almond tree is its very early flowering in the year, in February or March. This therefore makes it very sensitive to winter frosts, because a temperature of -2.5 ° C is enough to destroy its flowering.
The almond tree is native to West Asia, and has been cultivated in Iran for over 5,000 years. It is best known for its fruit, the almond, of which the largest producer in the world is California.
The varieties of almonds depend on the countries where they are grown. We find almonds from California, almonds from Morocco, almonds from Greece, almonds from Iran, Portugal and many other sunny countries. Almond trees require a lot of sun, which is why they are very present in Mediterranean countries.
Almonds unfit for consumption are generally used to extract an oil used in pharmacies and cosmetics. Sweet almond oil has healing, softening, hydrating and anti-inflammatory properties.
The almond tree is cultivated in plantation by sowing or then by grafts. It is usually planted in late summer when the heat is over.
Yes the almond tree enjoy the sun, it is best to plant it in a very slightly sheltered place. Indeed, the tree does not tolerate the cold very well, like its flowers which must be protected from the harsh winter.
The almond tree does not need a particularly rich soil, it flourishes fully in stony and dry soil. It has the distinction of being the first fruit tree to flower in winter. It dreads too clayey and humid soils, unless it is grafted on plum trees for example.
For a pot planting, place a layer of gravel at the bottom, and fill it with a mixture of 2/3 garden soil and 1/3 potting soil.
The almond tree is a tree that has an average lifespan of 100 years if it is well maintained. To facilitate its pollination, plant it in the direction of the wind.
Maintenance of the almond tree
The almond planted in the ground is very undemanding and requires little care. Very greedy in water, it must be very regularly watered during its first year.
If you have chosen a pot planting for your almond tree, repot it every two years, remembering to water it regularly.
We harvest fresh almonds from May to June, dried almonds from September to October.
To preserve them, let the almonds spread out in a covered place for ten days. The conservation lasts about a year, in a cool and dry place.
Diseases and pests of almond
The almond tree is rarely sick. Treat the almond tree with copper when the buds swell and the leaves fall to avoid moniliosis and scab.
If white felting appears on the foliage, treat your tree with oil in winter, then with a miticide.
Uses of almond
almond is an oleaginous fruit of ovoid and flat form, it can be consumed as it is or used in the form of oil. This is extracted from the kernel of the almond and used more particularly in pastry making, dermatology or even in cosmetology in the form ofalmond essential oil.
Almond also has a laxative power, this application is generally used to relieve cattle.